Marshall S. Smith

  • The General Inquirer

    A Computer Approach to Content Analysis

    Philip J. Stone, Dexter Dunphy, Marshall S. Smith, and Daniel M. Ogilvie

    The General Inquirer is a unique set of procedures for identifying, in a useful and meaningful way, recurrent patterns within the rich variety of man's written and spoken communications. Using the computer to implement analysis procedures, the General Inquirer provides a remarkably flexible common referent for testing the hypotheses of different investigators. It provides investigators with explicit procedures that can be exchanged, applied to one another's data, discussed, argued, and revised, thereby generating new hypotheses and insights.

    The system is programmed to accept actual text, look up words and phrases in dictionaries, assign descriptors, check for specified descriptor patterns, count occurrences, and retrieve sentences with specified characteristics. Beginning with studies of small-group interaction, the applications of the General Inquirer to content analysis have ranged over a wide variety of fields, including clinical psychology, social psychology, personality structure, cross-cultural comparisons, political science, survey research, business marketing, and, in initial explorations, literary analysis.

    In the first section of the book, the concept of content analysis is introduced and defined and the rationale are presented. The second section offers example applications carefully selected from five years of research experience to illustrate different theoretical orientations, text problems, and research designs. These orientations vary from simple word and phase counts to tests for complex thematic sequences – from short simple sentence completions to the range of complexity found in therapy protocols, political speeches, cultural folktales, suicide notes, autobiographies, field reports, diplomatic notes, editorials, and samples of psychotic writing. The research techniques vary from producing simple graphs to the complexities of factor analysis or interaction effects in analysis of variance.

    The supreme virtue of the General Inquirer method devised by Dr. Stone and his associates is that it keeps conceptual issues in the foreground and refuses to give undeserved prominence to the computer. Dr. Stone is thoroughly justified in insisting that the problem of inference should receive top billing in any appraisal of results or evaluation of future alternatives. The General Inquirer gives promise of providing a means by which a particular investigation can be conducted in the light of accumulated knowledge about content analysis without losing the possibility of adding detail as required to revise, respecify, or generalize the dictionaries and programs at hand.

    Although computers are essential to this approach to content analysis, technical details are relegated to a separate User's Manual in the belief that the real issue and excitement of content details but in the basic deigns and issues of the research strategy itself. The evolution of the system and changes planned for the future are also discussed.

    This first full discussion of computer-aided content analysis should prove as valuable as it is fascinating to all students of human behavior and indeed to anyone confronted with the task of organizing and making sense out of the spoken and written word.

    • Hardcover $17.50
    • Paperback $9.95

Contributor

  • Open Development

    Open Development

    Networked Innovations in International Development

    Matthew L. Smith and Katherine M. A. Reilly

    Experts explore current theory and practice in the application of digitally enabled open networked social models to international development.

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities.

    Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open models and existing structures, including struggles over privacy, intellectual property, and implementation. Finally, contributors offer broader conceptual perspectives, considering processes of social construction, knowledge management, and the role of individual intent in the development and outcomes of social models.

    ContributorsCarla Bonina, Ineke Buskens, Leslie Chan, Abdallah Daar, Jeremy de Beer, Mark Graham, Eve Gray, Anita Gurumurthy, Havard Haarstad, Blane Harvey, Myra Khan, Melissa Loudon, Aaron K. Martin, Hassan Masum, Chidi Oguamanam, Katherine M. A. Reilly, Ulrike Rivett, Karl Schroeder, Parminder Jeet Singh, Matthew L. Smith, Marshall S. Smith

    Copublished with the International Development Research Centre of Canada (IDRC)

    • Paperback $25.00
  • Opening Up Education

    Opening Up Education

    The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge

    Toru Iiyoshi and M.S. Vijay Kumar

    Experts discuss the potential for open education tools, resources, and knowledge to transform the economics and ecology of education.

    Given the abundance of open education initiatives that aim to make educational assets freely available online, the time seems ripe to explore the potential of open education to transform the economics and ecology of education. Despite the diversity of tools and resources already available—from well-packaged course materials to simple games, for students, self-learners, faculty, and educational institutions—we have yet to take full advantage of shared knowledge about how these are being used, what local innovations are emerging, and how to learn from and build on the experiences of others. Opening Up Education argues that we must develop not only the technical capability but also the intellectual capacity for transforming tacit pedagogical knowledge into commonly usable and visible knowledge: by providing incentives for faculty to use (and contribute to) open education goods, and by looking beyond institutional boundaries to connect a variety of settings and open source entrepreneurs.

    These essays by leaders in open education describe successes, challenges, and opportunies they have found in a range of open education initiatives. They approach—from both macro and micro perspectives—the central question of how open education tools, resources, and knowledge can improve the quality of education. The contributors (from leading foundations, academic institutions, associations, and projects) discuss the strategic underpinnings of their efforts first in terms of technology, then content, and finally knowledge. They also address the impact of their projects, and how close they come to achieving a vision of sustainable, transformative educational opportunities that amounts to much more than pervasive technology.

    Through the support of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, an electronic version of this book is openly available under a Creative Commons license at The MIT Press Web site, http://mitpress.mit.edu.

    ContributorsRichard Baraniuk, Randy Bass, Trent Batson, Dan Bernstein, John Seely Brown, Barbara Cambridge, Tom Carey, Catherine Casserly, Bernadine Chuck Fong, Ira Fuchs, Richard Gale, Mia Garlick, Gerard Hanley, Diane Harley, Mary Huber, Pat Hutchings, Toru Iiyoshi, David Kahle, M. S. Vijay Kumar, Andy Lane, Diana Laurillard, Stuart Lee, Steve Lerman, Marilyn Lombardi, Phil Long, Clifford Lynch, Christopher Mackie, Anne Margulies, Owen McGrath, Flora McMartin, Shigeru Miyagawa, Diana Oblinger, Neeru Paharia, Cheryl Richardson, Marshall Smith, Candace Thille, Edward Walker, David Wiley

    • Hardcover $25.95
    • Paperback $21.95