Marvin L. Manheim

  • Fundamentals of Transportation Systems Analysis, Volume 1

    Fundamentals of Transportation Systems Analysis, Volume 1

    Basic Concepts

    Marvin L. Manheim

    Transportation systems analysis is a multidisciplinary field which draws on engineering, economics, operations research, political science, psychology, management, and other disciplines. The major text synthesizes from these fields an approach that is intellectually coherent and comprehensive. Numerous details are provided to indicate how major concepts can be applied in practice to particular modes and problems. But the major objective of this book is to provide the reader with a basic framework onto which many different areas of specialization can be added by later coursework and practical experience. Fundamentals of Transportation Systems Analysis identifies concepts that are truly fundamental to serious work in the planning, design, or management of transportation systems. It also emphasizes, through more detailed treatment, certain topics, such as transportation demand and performance and the processes of evaluation and choice, that are inadequately treated in the available literature. A unique feature of the book is its emphasis on multimodal solutions to transportation problems. The student is taught to view the transportation system as a unified whole and to evaluate it within the context of the overall social, economic, and political system of a given region. According to Professor Manheim, "The challenge of transportation systems analysis is to intervene, delicately and deliberately, in the complex fabric of a society to use transport effectively, in coordination with other public and private actions, to achieve the goals of that society."

    • Hardcover
    • Paperback $70.00
  • Hierarchical Structure

    A Model of Design and Planning Processes

    Marvin L. Manheim

    Taking the location of highways as an example, the author develops a Bayesian decision theory model for guiding any engineering, planning, or design process. This model recognizes that such processes are “hierarchically structured,” in that they progress from preliminary concepts through successively more detailed levels of analysis to the final design.

    The process of solving a highway location problem involves the application in sequence of one or more operators. Given a number of operators, in general there is only one that produces actions sufficiently detailed to be considered solutions to the particular problem. An experiment is defined as the application of an operator to a previously produced action to yield a new action, more detailed than the first. Each time the engineer executes an experiment, he incurs a cost. The utility of an action resulting from the experiment is the best one to do next, considering the costs of each experiment and possible utilities of the resulting actions.

    The model represents the location process as a sequential decision problem. Using the Bayesian point of view, the model requires the engineer to place a subjective “prior” probability distribution over each action previously generated. Each operator is characterized by a “conditional” distribution, as well as a cost. Based upon the results of the experiments, the priors are revised in a Bayesian fashion, modified to represent the hierarchical structure. The best experiment at any time is calculated using preposterior analysis.

    An example computation is given for a hypothetical location process, and several other types of analyses using the model are illustrated. A program incorporating several heuristics enables the experimenter to perform the computations on a time-shared computer system. Finally, the implications and assumptions of this work are explored.

    • Paperback $10.00